Dr. Christian Hof

Chair for Terrestrial Ecology

Department of Ecology and Ecosystemmanagement
Technische Universität München
Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2
D-85350 Freising-Weihenstephan

Phone: +49.8161.71.2489
Fax:     +49.8161.71.4427
E-mail: christian.hof[at]tum.de

Curriculum vitae

2018- present Junior Research Group Leader
Since 2015 Member of the German Young Academy (Die Junge Akademie)
2011- 2018 Postdoctoral Researcher, Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), Frankfurt (Germany)
2010- 2011 Postdoctoral Researcher, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)
2010 Graduation as PhD with the dissertation “Species distributions and climate change: current patterns and future scenarios for biodiversity”
2007- 2010 PhD, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Biodiversity and Global Change Lab, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)
1999- 2006 Studies of Biology (majors: Animal Ecology, Nature Conservation, Zoology), University of Marburg

Research interest

My scientific work focuses on three main questions:

  • How are species able to respond to the challenges of anthropogenic global change?
  • What are the impacts of climate change on biodiversity – now, in the past and in the future?
  • How is biological diversity in space and time, and what are the underlying causes?

To address these questions, I work with several groups of animals such as terrestrial vertebrates (birds, mammals, amphibians) as well as invertebrates (insects, spiders) and freshwater organisms (in particular dragon- and damselflies).

In my research I aim to combine different types of data and methodological approaches from a mainly macroecological perspective. In order to better understand species’ potential responses to climate change, my recent work has set an emphasis on the integration of biogeographical physiological, and ecological data.

Recently I summarized the findings of our recent research on the impacts of climate and land use change on biodiversity in a popular science article in one of Germany's major newspapers (in German): LINK.

Current Projects

Junior Research Group funded by the bayklif program of the Bavarian State Ministry for Science, Research and the Arts.

Central aim of this project is to improve our understanding the effects of how climate and land-use change on the Bavarian fauna and to build reliable future projections of biodiversity in Bavaria. We will combine data on species distributions of birds, butterflies, dragonflies and grasshoppers (and potentially other taxa) with information from physiology, ecology and biogeography as well as different modelling approaches and across different spatial scales. With this multi-dimensional integration across taxa, scales and disciplines we aim to develop realistic scenarios for biological diversity - in Bavaria and beyond.

BioScen1point5 - Biodiversity scenarios for a 1.5°C warmer world

Project funded by the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF)

Aim of BioScen1point5 is an evaluation of the potential future impacts of climate and land-use change for the global biodiversity of terrestrial vertebrates under an average temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius, especially in comparison with other warming scenarios.

Climate change impacts on biodiversity in Pakistan

Project funded by the program „German-Pakistani Research Cooperations“ of the German ACademic Exchange Service (DAAD)

With this project, our main goal is to investigate the potential responses of species and ecological communities to the spatial and temporal variation of climatic conditions along elevational gradients in Pakistan. To do so, we will use a novel integrative methodological framework which combines observations on abundance variation, experimental measurements of thermal traits, and modelling approaches.



Schleuning, M., E. L. Neuschulz, J. Albrecht, I. M. A. Bender, D. E. Bowler, D. M. Dehling, S. A. Fritz, C. Hof, T. Mueller, L. Nowak, M. C. Sorensen, K. Böhning-Gaese and W. D. Kissling. 2020. Trait-Based Assessments of Climate-Change Impacts on Interacting Species. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. In press. PDF


Berkhout, B. W., M. K. Borregaard, R. Brandl, M. Brandle, D. M. Dehling, C. Hof, R. Poulin and D. W. Thieltges. 2019. Host assemblage and environment shape beta-diversity of freshwater parasites across diverse taxa at a continental scale. Global Ecology and Biogeography. DOI:10.1111/geb.13005 PDF

Biber, M. F., A. Voskam, A. Niamir, T. Hickler and C. Hof. 2019. A comparison of macroecological and stacked species distribution models to predict future global terrestrial vertebrate richness. Journal of Biogeography. DOI:10.1111/jbi.13696 PDF

Engelhardt, E. K., E. L. Neuschulz and C. Hof. 2019. Ignoring biotic interactions overestimates climate change effects: The potential response of the spotted nutcracker to changes in climate and resource plants. Journal of Biogeography. DOI:10.1111/jbi.13699 PDF

Leitao, P. J., C. J. Andrew, E. K. Engelhardt, C. H. Graham, C. Martinez-Almoyna, A. Mimet, S. Pinkert, B. Schroder, A. Voskamp, C. Hof and S. A. Fritz. 2019. Macroecology as a hub between research disciplines: Opportunities, challenges and possible ways forward. Journal of Biogeography. DOI:10.1111/jbi.13751 PDF

Wüest, R. O., N. E. Zimmermann, D. Zurell, J. M. Alexander, S. A. Fritz, C. Hof, H. Kreft, S. Normand, J. S. Cabral, E. Szekely, W. Thuiller, M. Wikelski and D. N. Karger. 2019. Macroecology in the age of Big Data – Where to go from here? Journal of Biogeography DOI:10.1111/jbi.13633. PDF


Hof, C., A. Voskamp, M. F. Biber, K. Böhning-Gaese, E. K. Engelhardt, A. Niamir, S. G. Willis and T. Hickler. 2018. Bioenergy cropland expansion may offset positive effects of climate change mitigation for global vertebrate diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI:10.1073/pnas.1807745115. PDF

Khaliq, I. and C. Hof. 2018. Testing the heat dissipation limitation hypothesis: basal metabolic rates of endotherms decrease with increasing upper and lower critical temperatures. PeerJ 6:e5725. PDF

Pinkert, S., K. D. B. Dijkstra, D. Zeuss, C. Reudenbach, R. Brandl and C. Hof. 2018. Evolutionary processes, dispersal limitation and climatic history shape current diversity patterns of European dragonflies. Ecography 41:795-804. PDF

Tucker, M. A., K. Bohning-Gaese, W. F. Fagan, J. M. Fryxell, B. Van Moorter, S. C. Alberts, A. H. Ali, A. M. Allen, N. Attias, T. Avgar, H. Bartlam-Brooks, B. Bayarbaatar, J. L. Belant, A. Bertassoni, D. Beyer, L. Bidner, F. M. Van Beest, S. Blake, N. Blaum, C. Bracis, D. Brown, P. J. N. De Bruyn, F. Cagnacci, J. M. Calabrese, C. Camilo-Alves, S. Chamaille-Jammes, A. Chiaradia, S. C. Davidson, T. Dennis, S. Destefano, D. Diefenbach, I. Douglas-Hamilton, J. Fennessy, C. Fichtel, W. Fiedler, C. Fischer, I. Fischhoff, C. H. Fleming, A. T. Ford, S. A. Fritz, B. Gehr, J. R. Goheen, E. Gurarie, M. Hebblewhite, M. Heurich, A. J. M. Hewison, C. Hof, E. Hurme, L. A. Isbell, R. Janssen, F. Jeltsch, P. Kaczensky, A. Kane, P. M. Kappeler, M. Kauffman, R. Kays, D. Kimuyu, F. Koch, B. Kranstauber, S. Lapoint, P. Leimgruber, J. D. C. Linnell, P. Lopez-Lopez, A. C. Markham, J. Mattisson, E. P. Medici, U. Mellone, E. Merrill, G. D. Mourao, R. G. Morato, N. Morellet, T. A. Morrison, S. L. Diaz-Munoz, A. Mysterud, D. Nandintsetseg, R. Nathan, A. Niamir, J. Odden, R. B. O'hara, L. G. R. Oliveira-Santos, K. A. Olson, B. D. Patterson, R. C. De Paula, L. Pedrotti, B. Reineking, M. Rimmler, T. L. Rogers, C. M. Rolandsen, C. S. Rosenberry, D. I. Rubenstein, K. Safi, S. Said, N. Sapir, H. Sawyer, N. M. Schmidt, N. Selva, A. Sergiel, E. Shiilegdamba, J. P. Silva, N. Singh, E. J. Solberg, O. Spiegel, O. Strand, S. Sundaresan, W. Ullmann, U. Voigt, J. Wall, D. Wattles, M. Wikelski, C. C. Wilmers, J. W. Wilson, G. Wittemyer, F. Zieba, T. Zwijacz-Kozica and T. Mueller. 2018. Moving in the Anthropocene: Global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements. Science 359:466-469. PDF


Bowler, D. E., P. Haase, C. Hof, I. Kröncke, L. Baert, W. Dekoninck, S. Domisch, F. Hendrickx, T. Hickler, H. Neumann, R. B. O'hara, A. F. Sell, M. Sonnewald, S. Stoll, M. Türkay, R. Van Klink, O. Schweiger, R. Vermeulen and K. Böhning-Gaese. 2017. Cross-taxa generalities in the relationship between population abundance and ambient temperatures. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 284:20170870. PDF

Bowler, D. E., C. Hof, P. Haase, I. Kroncke, O. Schweiger, R. Adrian, L. Baert, H. G. Bauer, T. Blick, R. W. Brooker, W. Dekoninck, S. Domisch, R. Eckmann, F. Hendrickx, T. Hickler, S. Klotz, A. Kraberg, I. Kuhn, S. Matesanz, A. Meschede, H. Neumann, R. O'hara, D. J. Russell, A. F. Sell, M. Sonnewald, S. Stoll, A. Sundermann, O. Tackenberg, M. Turkay, F. Valladares, K. Van Herk, R. Van Klink, R. Vermeulen, K. Voigtlander, R. Wagner, E. Welk, M. Wiemers, K. H. Wiltshire and K. Böhning-Gaese. 2017. Cross-realm assessment of climate change impacts on species' abundance trends. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1:67.

Frieler, K., S. Lange, F. Piontek, C. P. O. Reyer, J. Schewe, L. Warszawski, F. Zhao, L. Chini, S. Denvil, K. Emanuel, T. Geiger, K. Halladay, G. Hurtt, M. Mengel, D. Murakami, S. Ostberg, A. Popp, R. Riva, M. Stevanovic, T. Suzuki, J. Volkholz, E. Burke, P. Ciais, K. Ebi, T. D. Eddy, J. Elliott, E. Galbraith, S. N. Gosling, F. Hattermann, T. Hickler, J. Hinkel, C. Hof, V. Huber, J. Jagermeyr, V. Krysanova, R. Marce, H. M. Schmied, I. Mouratiadou, D. Pierson, D. P. Tittensor, R. Vautard, M. Van Vliet, M. F. Biber, R. A. Betts, B. L. Bodirsky, D. Deryng, S. Frolking, C. D. Jones, H. K. Lotze, H. Lotze-Campen, R. Sahajpal, K. Thonicke, H. Q. Tian and Y. Yamagata. 2017. Assessing the impacts of 1.5 degrees C global warming - simulation protocol of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP2b). Geoscientific Model Development 10:4321-4345. PDF

Hof, C., S. A. Fritz, R. Prinzinger, M. Pfenninger, K. Böhning-Gaese and I. Khaliq. 2017. Phylogenetic signals in thermal traits remain stronger in the tropics if we can believe published physiological data. A reply to McKechnie et al., “Data quality problems undermine analyses of endotherm upper critical temperatures”. Journal of Biogeography 44:2427-2431. PDF

Hof, C., I. Khaliq, R. Prinzinger, K. Böhning-Gaese and M. Pfenninger. 2017. Global patterns of thermal tolerances and vulnerability of endotherms to climate change remain robust irrespective of varying data suitability criteria. Proc Biol Sci 284:20170232. PDF

Hof, C., M. Winter, S. Hotes and L. Opgenoorth. 2017. It's not (all) about the money - supporting IPBES through challenging times. Frontiers of Biogeography 9:1-3. PDF

Khaliq, I., K. Böhning-Gaese, R. Prinzinger, M. Pfenninger and C. Hof. 2017. The influence of thermal tolerances on geographical ranges of endotherms. Global Ecology and Biogeography 26:650-668. PDF

Methorst, J., K. Bohning-Gaese, I. Khaliq and C. Hof. 2017. A framework integrating physiology, dispersal and land-use to project species ranges under climate change. Journal of Avian Biology 48:1532-1548. PDF

Specht, J., C. Hof, J. Tjus, W. Pernice and U. Endesfelder. 2017. Departments statt Lehrstühle: moderne Personalstruktur für eine zukunftsfähige Wissenschaft. Berlin, Junge Akademie. PDF


Dulle, H. I., S. W. Ferger, N. J. Cordeiro, K. M. Howell, M. Schleuning, K. Böhning-Gaese and C. Hof. 2016. Changes in abundances of forest understorey birds on Africa's highest mountain suggest subtle effects of climate change. Diversity and Distributions 22:288-299. PDF

Fritz, S. A., J. T. Eronen, J. Schnitzler, C. Hof, C. M. Janis, A. Mulch, K. Böhning-Gaese and C. H. Graham. 2016. Twenty-million-year relationship between mammalian diversity and primary productivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:10908-10913. PDF

Hof, C. 2016. Dranbleiben! Für grundlegende Reformen des Wissenschaftssystems. Junge Akademie Magazin 21:41-42.

Schleuning, M., J. Fründ, O. Schweiger, E. Welk, J. Albrecht, M. Albrecht, M. Beil, G. Benadi, N. Blüthgen, H. Bruelheide, K. Böhning-Gaese, D. M. Dehling, C. F. Dormann, N. Exeler, N. Farwig, A. Harpke, T. Hickler, A. Kratochwil, M. Kuhlmann, I. Kuhn, D. Michez, S. Mudri-Stojnic, M. Plein, P. Rasmont, A. Schwabe, J. Settele, A. Vujic, C. N. Weiner, M. Wiemers and C. Hof. 2016. Ecological networks are more sensitive to plant than to animal extinction under climate change. Nat Commun 7:13965.

Specht, J., U. Endesfelder, T. J. Erb, C. Hof and W. Pernice. 2016. Die Bundesprofessur: eine personenbezogene, langfristige Förderung im deutschen Wissenschaftssystem. Berlin, Die Junge Akademie. PDF


Bowler, D. E., P. Haase, I. Kroncke, O. Tackenberg, H. G. Bauer, C. Brendel, R. W. Brooker, M. Gerisch, K. Henle, T. Hickler, C. Hof, S. Klotz, I. Kuhn, S. Matesanz, R. O'hara, D. Russell, O. Schweiger, F. Valladares, E. Welk, M. Wiemers and K. Böhning-Gaese. 2015. A cross-taxon analysis of the impact of climate change on abundance trends in central Europe. Biological Conservation 187:41-50. PDF

Fristoe, T. S., J. R. Burger, M. A. Balk, I. Khaliq, C. Hof and J. H. Brown. 2015. Metabolic heat production and thermal conductance are mass-independent adaptations to thermal environment in birds and mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:15934-15939. PDF

Hof, C., D. M. Dehling, A. Bonn, N. D. Burgess, F. Eigenbrod, M. B. Harfoot, T. Hickler, W. Jetz, E. Marquard, H. M. Pereira and K. Böhning-Gaese. 2015. Macroecology meets IPBES. Frontiers of Biogeography 7:155-167. PDF

Khaliq, I., S. A. Fritz, R. Prinzinger, M. Pfenninger, K. Böhning-Gaese and C. Hof. 2015. Global variation in thermal physiology of birds and mammals: evidence for phylogenetic niche conservatism only in the tropics. Journal of Biogeography 42:2187-2196. PDF

Willis, S. G., W. Foden, D. J. Baker, E. Belle, N. D. Burgess, J. A. Carr, N. Doswald, R. A. Garcia, A. Hartley, C. Hof, T. Newbold, C. Rahbek, R. J. Smith, P. Visconti, B. E. Young and S. H. M. Butchart. 2015. Integrating climate change vulnerability assessments from species distribution models and trait-based approaches. Biological Conservation 190:167-178. PDF


Khaliq, I., C. Hof, R. Prinzinger, K. Böhning-Gaese and M. Pfenninger. 2014. Global variation in thermal tolerances and vulnerability of endotherms to climate change. Proc Biol Sci 281:20141097. PDF

Platts, P. J., R. A. Garcia, C. Hof, W. Foden, L. A. Hansen, C. Rahbek and N. D. Burgess. 2014. Conservation implications of omitting narrow-ranging taxa from species distribution models, now and in the future. Diversity and Distributions 20:1307-1320. PDF

Stevens, V. M., S. Whitmee, J. F. Le Galliard, J. Clobert, K. Böhning-Gaese, D. Bonte, M. Brändle, D. Matthias Dehling, C. Hof, A. Trochet and M. Baguette. 2014. A comparative analysis of dispersal syndromes in terrestrial and semi-terrestrial animals. Ecol Lett 17:1039-1052. PDF


Fritz, S. A., J. Schnitzler, J. T. Eronen, C. Hof, K. Böhning-Gaese and C. H. Graham. 2013. Diversity in time and space: wanted dead and alive. Trends Ecol Evol 28:509-516. PDF

Grewe, Y., C. Hof, D. M. Dehling, R. Brandl and M. Brändle. 2013. Recent range shifts of European dragonflies provide support for an inverse relationship between habitat predictability and dispersal. Global Ecology and Biogeography 22:403-409. PDF


Beck, J., L. Ballesteros-Mejia, C. M. Buchmann, J. Dengler, S. A. Fritz, B. Gruber, C. Hof, F. Jansen, S. Knapp, H. Kreft, A. K. Schneider, M. Winter and C. F. Dormann. 2012. What's on the horizon for macroecology? Ecography 35:673-683. PDF

Hof, C., M. Brändle, D. M. Dehling, M. Munguia, R. Brandl, M. B. Araújo and C. Rahbek. 2012. Habitat stability affects dispersal and the ability to track climate change. Biology Letters 8:639-643. PDF


Hof, C., M. B. Araújo, W. Jetz and C. Rahbek. 2011. Additive threats from pathogens, climate and land-use change for global amphibian diversity. Nature 480:516-519.

Hof, C., I. Levinsky, M. B. Araújo and C. Rahbek. 2011. Rethinking species' ability to cope with rapid climate change. Global Change Biology 17:2987-2990. PDF

Thieltges, D. W., C. Hof, M. K. Borregaard, D. M. Dehling, M. Brändle, R. Brandl and R. Poulin. 2011. Range size patterns in European freshwater trematodes. Ecography 34:982-989. PDF

Thieltges, D. W., C. Hof, D. M. Dehling, M. Brändle, R. Brandl and R. Poulin. 2011. Host diversity and latitude drive trematode diversity patterns in the European freshwater fauna. Global Ecology and Biogeography 20:675-682. PDF


Dehling, D. M., C. Hof, M. Brändle and R. Brandl. 2010. Habitat availability does not explain the species richness patterns of European lentic and lotic freshwater animals. Journal of Biogeography 37:1919-1926. PDF

Hof, C., C. Rahbek and M. B. Araújo. 2010. Phylogenetic signals in the climatic niches of the world's amphibians. Ecography 33:242-250. PDF


Diniz-Filho, J. A. F., L. M. Bini, T. F. Rangel, R. D. Loyola, C. Hof, D. Nogues-Bravo and M. B. Araújo. 2009. Partitioning and mapping uncertainties in ensembles of forecasts of species turnover under climate change. Ecography 32:897-906. PDF


Hof, C., M. Brändle and R. Brandl. 2008. Latitudinal variation of diversity in European freshwater animals is not concordant across habitat types. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17:539-546. PDF


Hof, C., M. Brändle and R. Brandl. 2006. Lentic odonates have larger and more northern ranges than lotic species. Journal of Biogeography 33:63-70. PDF

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Invited Talks (Selection)

Biodiversität am Abgrund – Herausforderung für Wissenschaft und Gesellschaft in Zeiten globalen Wandels. Haus am Dom, Katholische Akademie Rabanus Maurus des Bistums Limburg, Frankfurt, 17 May 2018.

Klima, Mensch, Ökosysteme. Wie beeinflussen Mensch und Klima die Vielfalt des Lebens auf der Erde? Gymnasium Nord, Frankfurt, 16 January 2018.

Understanding and predicting responses of biodiversity to global change: integration at the macro-scale. Technische Universität München, Freising, 6 November 2017.

Biologische Vielfalt im Wandel - Forschung zwischen Orakel und Wissenschaft. Cusanuswerk-Regionalgruppe Rhein-Main, Mainz, 30 June 2017

Wärmer = ärmer? – Artenvielfalt im Klimawandel. Symposium “Worauf wartest Du” der Jungen Akademie in Berlin, 4 November 2016.

Understanding responses of biodiversity to global change: integration at the macro-scale. Invited “next generation scientist”-talk, 9th annual meeting of the Macroecology Specialist Group of the GfÖ in Trier, 15-17 March 2016.

Climate change impacts on biodiversity: are ecological models relevant for conservation? Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne (Australien), 28 January 2016.

Climate change impacts on biodiversity: macroecological perspectives. Greifswald University, 26 November 2015.

Modelling the responses of biodiversity to global change: visions, challenges, and opportunities. University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada), 19 May 2015.

Globaler Wandel und Biodiversität: Makroökologische Perspektiven. Symposium keynote, 147. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, Bielefeld, 1-6 October 2014.

Orakel oder Wissenschaft? Zu den Auswirkungen des Klimawandels auf Arten und Biodiversität. University of Marburg, 8 July 2014.

Szenarien für die Biosphäre – Prognosen oder Orakel? Von den Möglichkeiten und Grenzen ökologischer Forschung. Tagung “Die Zukunft des Lebens – Szenarien für die Biosphäre” der Fachschaft Chemie/Biologie des Cusanuswerks, Ellwangen, 12 May 2013.

Klimawandel - und sonst? Auswirkungen globaler Bedrohungen auf Artverbreitungen und Biodiversität. Justus-Liebig Universität Gießen, 5 February 2013.

Ist das Klima das Problem? Auswirkungen des globalen Wandels auf Tierverbreitungen und Artenvielfalt. Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald, Grafenau, 22 November 2012.

Frying frogs, dispersing dragons. Does climate change really matter for biodiversity? Imperial College London, Silwood Park (United Kingdom), 20 October 2011.

The geography of future threats for global amphibian diversity - a macroecological perspective on niches, distributions, and climate change. Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, 3 February 2011.

Habitats, dispersal, and climate change: Macroecological insights into the freshwater world. Fachgebiet Angewandte Zoologie/Hydrobiologie, University of Duisburg/Essen, 29 March 2010.

Es wird heiß! - Artenvielfalt und Klimawandel. Realschule Altenkirchen/Westerwald, August 2008.

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